Biological Testing with Patterned Electrodes

Characterizing and testing biological samples can be done through patterned electrodes. The overall structure and quality of an electrode can either enhance or impinge on sampling results. An ideal electrode design should attain a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a low electrode impedance, and display resistance to harsh biological environments. Current generation and transportation depend on the metal coating present on an electrode surface.

An Introduction to Wound Healing Assays

Wound healing assays are standard in vitro methods of probing collective cell migration in two dimensions. In wound healing assays, a cell-free area is formed in a confluent monolayer using physical exclusion or taking away the cells from the area via thermal, chemical, or mechanical damage. It is exposure to this cell-free area that leads to cells migrating into the gap.

Thin Film Interference Effects

During the photolithography process, thin film interference effects can influence a substrates surface properties. Common interference effects include the standing wave effect, reflective notching, edge bead formation, and under/over baking. The Platypus Technologies engineers have enhanced our standard operating procedures to account for potential defects caused by thin film interference effects.

The Basics of Surface Science: Nanoscale Chemistry & Physics

Surface science is a highly complex field that spans multiple disciplines and is related to the chemical and physical interactions that take place when two phases come together. These interfaces can be solid-vacuum, liquid-gas, solid-liquid, solid-gas, etc. This article will outline some of the basic elements of surface science and how it is used.

Photolithography based Lift-off

Lift-off is often conducted following a series of photolithography steps that create a photoresist layer onto a substrate. Chemical and metal lift-off methods are used to create distinctive patterns onto a surface. Both types of lift-offs can be time consuming compared to wet etching, however lift-off is a safer method that offers lower production costs and enhanced processing capabilities.

What is Compound Screening in Drug Discovery?

Developing a new medicine and bringing it to market is a long, difficult and expensive process. This process begins with drug discovery:  the unearthing of promising compounds which demonstrate some beneficial biological effect. Compound screening is the primary method by which initial drug discovery is carried out.

Wet Etching

Wet etching is a technique to pattern metal films into functional devices. A metal film covered with a patterned photoresist is submerged into a liquid that selectively removes exposed areas of the metal.  This form of etching is an isotropic method, meaning that the metal is removed with equal rate all directions. 

Raman Scattering of the Sulfur Bond at Metal Surfaces

A research study from Iowa State University explored the potential of using directional Raman scattering spectroscopy to characterize self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) deposited on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) surfaces. SAMs are formed by absorption of organic thiols (R-SH) on metal surfaces and are used in microelectronic applications requiring precise surface patterning of metal films.