Lithography is a technique used to transfer a two-dimensional pattern onto a flat surface. Depending on the required outcome, many lithography methods can be used. This blog post will cover the four different types of lithography techniques and their applications.
The Different Types of Lithography
When patterns need depositing, lithography is a process that utilizes UV light to transfer a geometric pattern onto a thin film or a substrate. This is carried out by spinning a layer of photoresist onto a piece of material and then exposing the photoresist to ultraviolet light. Before the photoresist is exposed, a mask is placed on top of the substrate to stop certain areas from being illuminated by the light. The geometric pattern is finally relieved by removing the unprocessed regions with the help of an aqueous solvent. One of the main reasons for creating a patterned film is to protect a substrate, but other reasons are possible.
Electron Beam Lithography
Electron beam lithography (e-beam lithography or EBL) transfers a pattern on a substrate surface where extremely high resolution or unique designs are required. It is one of the slower lithography processes and is more expensive, but the result is of a high standard.
Ion Beam Lithography
Ion beam lithography (focused ion beam lithography or IBL) is a process that uses a focused beam of ions to create tiny nanostructures on the surface of a substrate. This is used to create items such as circuit boards and is commonly used in the semiconductor industry.
Optical Lithography (Photolithography)
Optical lithography, also known as photolithography, is a microfabrication process that involves selectively removing parts of a thin film before other processing actions (deposition or etching) are undertaken. At Playtpus Technologies, our photolithography process can be finalized using metal lift-off or wet etching. Each of these methods can be used to transfer the photoresist pattern onto a thin film.
- Metal lift-off is a process where the thin film is deposited on top of the patterned photoresist, and then the photoresist is dissolved so the pattern can be revealed.
- Wet etching involves depositing the photoresist on top of the metal film. Parts of the metal are removed with specific liquid chemicals, and then the photoresist is removed by a solvent to reveal the pattern.
X-ray lithography (XRL) is frequently used to manufacture semiconductor devices. It is used to remove specific parts of a thin film of photoresist. The X-rays are used to transfer a geometric pattern onto a substrate
Platypus Technologies and Lithography Services
Platypus Technologies provides various photolithography services for several applications, including biosensors, chemical sensors, electrodes and MEMs devices. Additionally, if you require, Platypus Technologies supplies negative and positive photoresists for photolithography processes.
Please contact us today for more information about our lithography services or other products.