4 Different Types of Lithography

Lithography is a technique used to transfer a two-dimensional pattern onto a flat surface. Depending on the required outcome, many lithography methods can be used. This blog post will cover the four different types of lithography techniques and their applications. 

The Different Types of Lithography

When patterns need depositing, lithography is a process that utilizes UV light to transfer a geometric pattern onto a thin film or a substrate. This is carried out by spinning a layer of photoresist onto a piece of material and then exposing the photoresist to ultraviolet light. Before the photoresist is exposed, a mask is placed on top of the substrate to stop certain areas from being illuminated by the light. The geometric pattern is finally relieved by removing the unprocessed regions with the help of an aqueous solvent. One of the main reasons for creating a patterned film is to protect a substrate, but other reasons are possible.   

Electron Beam Lithography

Electron beam lithography (e-beam lithography or EBL) transfers a pattern on a substrate surface where extremely high resolution or unique designs are required. It is one of the slower lithography processes and is more expensive, but the result is of a high standard. 

Ion Beam Lithography

Ion beam lithography (focused ion beam lithography or IBL) is a process that uses a focused beam of ions to create tiny nanostructures on the surface of a substrate. This is used to create items such as circuit boards and is commonly used in the semiconductor industry.  

Optical Lithography (Photolithography)

Optical lithography, also known as photolithography, is a microfabrication process that involves selectively removing parts of a thin film before other processing actions (deposition or etching) are undertaken. At Playtpus Technologies, our photolithography process can be finalized using metal lift-off or wet etching. Each of these methods can be used to transfer the photoresist pattern onto a thin film. 

  • Metal lift-off is a process where the thin film is deposited on top of the patterned photoresist, and then the photoresist is dissolved so the pattern can be revealed.
  • Wet etching involves depositing the photoresist on top of the metal film. Parts of the metal are removed with specific liquid chemicals, and then the photoresist is removed by a solvent to reveal the pattern.

X-ray Lithography

X-ray lithography (XRL) is frequently used to manufacture semiconductor devices. It is used to remove specific parts of a thin film of photoresist. The X-rays are used to transfer a geometric pattern onto a substrate 

Platypus Technologies and Lithography Services

Platypus Technologies provides various photolithography services for several applications, including biosensors, chemical sensors, electrodes and MEMs devices. Additionally, if you require, Platypus Technologies supplies negative and positive photoresists for photolithography processes.

Please contact us today for more information about our lithography services or other products.

How Thin Films Factor into Surface Science

Thin films are used in a wide range of advanced applications in surface science, and studies surrounding thin films have significantly advanced solid state chemistry and physics. Surface science relates to any surfaces, interfaces and their applications and any research or development in the field. Thin films play a large part in surface science, and this blog post aims to cover how and why.

Applications Of Wound Healing Assays

Wound healing assays measure cell migration over a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer. As cell migration takes place throughout numerous physiological processes, it has been studied in a variety of contexts from tissue injury, wound healing, cancer metastasis and more. Throughout the following post, we will explain the applications of wound healing assays and the importance of each.

What is the Difference Between Invasion and Cell Migration Assays?

Many biomedical research projects revolve around analysis of the cell. Information about cell types, cell proliferation, cell count, and cell migration is critical to advancing disease treatment and health studies. To extract this knowledge, scientists rely on various types of assays that focus on characterizing a specific property or function of target cell types. This blog post will provide a brief overview of the difference between invasion and cell migration assays, with an emphasis on cell migration assays from Platypus Technologies.

What is a Disk Electrode Used For?

Disk electrodes are one of the essential components for performing many electrochemical experiments. Measurements such as cyclic voltammetry are widely used methods for the characterization of nearly any material or process that involves electron transfer – something ubiquitous in any material or component that will be used as part of an electronic system.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Photolithography

Photolithography, also known as optical lithography, is a microfabrication technique that uses light to produce precisely patterned thin films over substrates such as silicon wafers. These patterned films typically protect selected areas of the underlying substrate during subsequent processing, such as etching or metal deposition.

Why Is There a Shortage of Silicon Chips?

Silicon chips are a type of integrated circuit that is the primary electronic component of computing devices. The chips are mainly made from silicon (as the name suggests), which is the second most abundant element on the earth. In the last few years, there has been a significant shortage of silicon chips across the world. In this article, we explain the reasons why and the effects of this shortage.

The Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces

Cell culture surfaces are surfaces on which cells are grown under controlled conditions away from their natural environment. The cells under investigation are isolated from the tissue and are sustained and preserved under carefully controlled conditions. 

The History of Cell Culture Surfaces

In the past century, cell culture, growth, and differentiation have moved from fringe experiments to a widely used bioproduction tool. In this time, the cell culture surfaces themselves have evolved as the research requirements adjust. 

How are Silicon Wafers Used in Electrochemistry

Silicon wafers are materials that are used for the production of semiconductors. They can be found in many types of electronic devices that are used in everyday life. Silicon wafers are super-flat disks that are refined into a mirror-like surface, they are extremely clean and free from impurities and micro-particles.

Silicon wafers are particularly well suited to use in electronic devices because electrical currents can pass through silicon conductors than many other materials. Here we will explore more about the uses of silicon wafers in electrochemistry and some of their key characteristics.

What are the Steps in Cell Migration

Cell migration is an extremely important cellular process. It is the directed movement of a group of cells or a single cell when responding to chemical and mechanical signals. This fundamental process takes place throughout life and continues until death, contributing to pathogenic states in disease. This article will outline the key steps of the process and how they work.

Using Photolithography for Surface Patterning

What is Photolithography?

Photolithography, sometimes known as optical lithography or UV lithography is a process that is used in microfabrication for surface patterning parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. Photolithography uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical photoresist or simply resist on the substrate.

An Introduction to Wound Healing Assays

Wound healing assays are standard in vitro methods of probing collective cell migration in two dimensions. In wound healing assays, a cell-free area is formed in a confluent monolayer using physical exclusion or taking away the cells from the area via thermal, chemical, or mechanical damage. It is exposure to this cell-free area that leads to cells migrating into the gap.

The Basics of Surface Science: Nanoscale Chemistry & Physics

Surface science is a highly complex field that spans multiple disciplines and is related to the chemical and physical interactions that take place when two phases come together. These interfaces can be solid-vacuum, liquid-gas, solid-liquid, solid-gas, etc. This article will outline some of the basic elements of surface science and how it is used.